How Russia tried to uproot the Polish elites

Between 1861 and 1881 the largest single category of political prisoners in Siberia were the Poles. Most of the exiles tended to be insurgents or suspected insurgents, as well as persons accused of aiding and harboring the buntovschiki. Marek Jan Chodakiewicz A leading expert on imperial Russia’s penal issues, including St. Petersburg’s use and abuse […]

Siberian Exile in Polish History (Part 4)

Russian terror against the Poles reflects Moscow’s fear of freedom which has been Poland’s organizing principle in the Eastern Borderlands of Western Civilization. Marek Jan Chodakiewicz (…) The Siberians: A Sample Although we have kept the narrative impersonal for the most part, it is imperative to describe a few outstanding individuals who suffered because they […]