Franco and East-Central Europe (Part 2)

Franco became an important ideological and military European ally in the struggle against Communist domination and influence. Therefore, despite stiff opposition of the USSR, its satellites, and much of the leftist and liberal public opinion in the West, the United States facilitated and, along with the Vatican, sponsored a gradual reintegration of Spain into the […]

Franco and East-Central Europe (Part 1)

Franco became an important ideological and military European ally in the struggle against Communist domination and influence. Therefore, despite stiff opposition of the USSR, its satellites, and much of the leftist and liberal public opinion in the West, the United States facilitated and, along with the Vatican, sponsored a gradual reintegration of Spain into the […]

The Secret World of American Communism

Since its inception, the Communist Party USA was subordinated to the Comintern, which, in turn, took orders from the Bolshevik leadership in the Kremlin. Marek Jan Chodakiewicz After the Bolshevik takeover in 1917, the American right began to quarrel about Communism with the domestic left. Without appropriate documents, the right could not prove its anti-Communist […]

A Democratic Nationalism (Part 2)

It does not matter that the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth achieved a level of freedom unparalleled in the world until the rise of the United States. It is a matter of indifference that the Danes are perhaps even more devoted to their flag than we are. What matters is our perception of ourselves as exceptional which allows […]

A Democratic Nationalism (Part 1)

It does not matter that the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth achieved a level of freedom unparalleled in the world until the rise of the United States. It is a matter of indifference that the Danes are perhaps even more devoted to their flag than we are. What matters is our perception of ourselves as exceptional which allows […]

How Russia tried to uproot the Polish elites

Between 1861 and 1881 the largest single category of political prisoners in Siberia were the Poles. Most of the exiles tended to be insurgents or suspected insurgents, as well as persons accused of aiding and harboring the buntovschiki. Marek Jan Chodakiewicz A leading expert on imperial Russia’s penal issues, including St. Petersburg’s use and abuse […]

Siberian Exile in Polish History (Part 4)

Russian terror against the Poles reflects Moscow’s fear of freedom which has been Poland’s organizing principle in the Eastern Borderlands of Western Civilization. Marek Jan Chodakiewicz (…) The Siberians: A Sample Although we have kept the narrative impersonal for the most part, it is imperative to describe a few outstanding individuals who suffered because they […]

Carbon Copy Communism

Exiles are a fantastic asset abroad: they can help change the perception of the homeland that is no longer a totalitarian dictatorship Marek Jan Chodakiewicz The Politburo and the Central Committee concur that there is room for a mixed economy and reforms are announced at the Communist Party congress. Some market mechanisms and a nod […]

Siberian Exile in Polish History (Part 3)

Russian terror against the Poles reflects Moscow’s fear of freedom which has been Poland’s organizing principle in the Eastern Borderlands of Western Civilization. Marek Jan Chodakiewicz (…) Siberia: 1939-1956 Although we concern ourselves here with the victims of the Gulag and the crimes of the Communists, our introduction would be incomplete without a reference to […]

Siberian Exile in Polish History (Part 2)

Russian terror against the Poles reflects Moscow’s fear of freedom which has been Poland’s organizing principle in the Eastern Borderlands of Western Civilization. Marek Jan Chodakiewicz (…) Siberia: From Uprisings to Independence (1768-1921) Over a century and a half lapsed between the Polish demise and resurrection. In over 150 years of direct Russian rule over […]